- These top 15 questions are squeezed from nearly all searchable examination papers online
- This post is only useful for unimelb student from COMP90041 course
Why instance variables should be declared PRIVATE?
- if not private, the class cannot control access and modification of instance variables, because other classes also can access and modify them.
- if not private, it is expensive to remove or change them, because making it public will require significant modification to other classes.
Class variable is what?
- A class variable is any variable declared with “static”. It is a special type of class attribute.
Println mechanism for why it can print any any any objects
- “System” class has an instance variable called “out”.
- the “out” class defines “println” method.
- the method is overloaded to support all primitive types, String and objects.
- for passing objects to the method, it will use object’s “toString” method to represent the objects and send the representation to the output stream.
Static method VS Non-static method.
- Static method do not have “this” parameter
- Because it can be invoked without sending a message to any object
- it prevents many actions that non-static method can performe.
- prevent e.g. access, set instance variables of the class
- prevent e.g. call other non-static methods of the class
Constructor do what? Why usually overloaded?
- Constrctor is for initializing the instance variables to appropriate value.
- Make JAVA polymorphism: an ad hoc feature. It allows a single piece of code to work for many different types of objects.
- Default(no-argument constructor):An empty constructor is needed to create a new instance via reflection by your persistence framework.
Abstract class VS Concrete class
- Abstract Class:
- Abstract class permits to have abstract methods(method with header but no bodies).
- Used to specify an interface without implementing any methods.
- Not permit to create an instance of abstract class
- Allow extend from another abstract class
- Concrete Class:
- Concrete class not permits to have abstract methods.
- Concrete Class can extend abstract class when specify and override all abstract methods and even add other concrete methods.
Overloading VS Overriding
- with same method name but different signatures in one class
- derived class redefines an inherited method in the base class, with same signature.
Visibility of public VS protected.
- public members can be accessed from any methods in any classes
- protected member can only be accessed from the same package and any other classes that inherited from the member’s class.
- CAN GIVE EXAMPLE
List all Visibility(Permission) modifiers. which one is prefered visibility for instance variables?
- Public, Protected, Private(preferred in instance variables)
Single inheritance VS Multiple inheritance
- Single inheritance:
- each class can be derived from at most one class.
- JAVA onely support this because only extend one class.
- Multiple inheritance:
- each class can be derived from more than one class.
- JAVA can implement more than one interfaces, however it cannot be inherited for method function, only interface(it is abstract).
Why output excute the actual body instead of the type?(Type NAME = new ACTUALTYPE())
- An upcasting changes its type only, not change its actual body.
- the function will use the method in actual body.
- It is called LATE BINDING!
Privacy leak. Why leak although declare Private? How to prevent? Example?
- Privacy leak happened when method of another class get ahold of mutable objects stored in private instance variables.
- Use an immutable object, such as String to hold data.
- Using copy constrctor to copy mutable object before storing or returning it.
- Simply do not any such methods to store or return such objects in instance variables.
What is polymorphism? why use? how use? example?
- Polymorphism is the feature that allows a single piece of code to work for many different types of objects
- JAVA use polymorphism in three ways: Ad hoc(overloading), Subtype(inheritance & overridding), Parametric(generic).
- SAY EACH FUNCTION OF THEM AND GIVE A PIECE OF CODE FOR EXAMPLE
Generic type - is what? when support in JAVA? improve what in Arraylist in former version of JAVA?
- generic types are types that have parameters
- for example: ArrayList
carry all the elements with type String
- it better specify the program intensions
- allow JAVA compiler to produce more specific error message when intension is violated.
- Generic type example - ArrayList
- Before JAVA 5, elements with any types can input to an arraylist
- each objects from arraylist need to be cast to an appropriate data type
- sometime it will cause runtime problem if choose wrong cast type
- But in JAVA 5, the type of arraylist can be specified
- no need to cast types like that because only one type will come out of an arraylist.
Wrapper Class is what? When useful? Example of a standard wrapper class.
- each primitive types have wrapper class which stores one primitive value
- each has a one-argument constrctor to create the object(boxing)
- each has a no-arugment getter to get the primitive value(unboxing)
- wrapper classes are immutable
- Example below
- Used to convert any data type into an object
- Like: integer class is a wrapper class for the primitive type int which contains several methods to deal with int value like converting it to a string or convert from string. An object of Integer class can hold a single int value.
Good Luck for your final exam!